The Story of Zeta Potential 3

More Pictures of Blood (sort of)

Back in the late 1960’s Thomas Riddick who was an engineer and chemist, wrote the book  “Control of Colloid Stability Through Zeta Potential”. It was a masterful work which expressed all the nuances of zeta potential within colloidal systems and included insights into working with cardiovascular disease which we’ll talk more about later.

Riddick spent thousands of hours researching how zeta potential is influenced by the mix of pH factors and electrolyte concentration in liquid suspensions. Zeta potential fluctuates up and down dependent on the pH, the concentration of the electrolytes in the liquid, and the specific conductance of the liquid which relates right back to the electrolyte concentration. We use specific conductance as a measure of the ability of a liquid medium to conduct electricity. We measure specific conductance on a scale called mho (also called siemen).   

One thing I found fascinating with Riddick’s work was how zeta potential plays a role in all of life.  In “How You Rot & Rust”  elsewhere on this site, we mention how the colloids can have an urge to merge, how they merge and what they form into is all a function of the terrain to which they are exposed. (And they can also have an urge to disperse if charged properly.) Well guess what? In the blood the terrain is a mix or ratio of anions and cations and other non-ionic substances. Two of these non-ionic substances in the body would be alcohol and sugar. Too much here and you create a steric hindrance – steric pertains to the spatial relationships of the atoms in molecules – which means interference with ionic mobility and lessened zeta potential.

So as dietary habits affect the levels of anions, cations and other substances in the bloodstream, the interplay of all these things leads to an overall measure of zeta potential. If zeta potential goes down – that is the charge between colloids decreases – the colloids come together. If zeta potential goes up the colloids disperse. (Technically zeta potential is measured by the millivolt reading between colloids. This millivolt reading is expressed as a negative (-) number. The more (-) the reading, the greater the zeta potential. In blood the onset of agglomeration occurs at approximately –15mv and maximum dispersion is obtained at –100mv. )

Here is how Riddick illustrated the linking together of various polymers – the coming together of many different molecules – that might occur when zeta potential falls within various suspensions.




As I first viewed these images I thought gee, these are the types of forms that are often seen in blood. And sure enough it is so because the blood is a colloidal suspension directly under the influence of anions, cations, and non-ionic substances which all influence the charge of zeta potential and it is this charge which is the final factor which influences the merging together of the blood colloids.

Mysteries Yet to Unfold

As we discussed earlier, the variety of developmental forms of microbes under different terrain conditions is what Lida Mattman observed. The driving factor is the ionic and non-ionic mix or concentration of the medium, and the ultimate measurable control is zeta potential. I do not doubt that multiple microbial looking forms may arise within equal measures of zeta potential, the determining factor being the ionic/non-ionic mix of the medium or terrain in which the microbe exists.

When Guenther Enderlein made his observations of the endobiont, he was doing so from the framework of a biologist. He observed the pleomorphic nature of different fungal species in culture by varying their terrain, and observed the exact same type of forms in the blood by varying its terrain. This was all observation – and quite brilliant. DNA testing did not exist to correlate the theories. Today some preliminary work is being done on the observed forms in the blood and some of these things do not seem to correlate with Enderlein’s thought process. Then again there are flaws in our knowledge of DNA. There may be fungal links in the blood which will be uncovered, as well as links to “stealth pathogens”.  

Many mysteries are yet to unfold. What we know for sure is that the terrain is everything. When we are dead, microbes in our body turn us back to dust. When we are alive and view living blood under the microscope, the worse it looks, the worse off we are. The faster it degenerates on a microscope slide, the faster we are degenerating internally. Underlying all of this is the basic interplay of the electron – anions and cations. The measurement of their influence is zeta potential. Increase zeta potential and the blood looks and acts healthier, decrease zeta potential and it’s just the opposite.

Silent Clots

James Privitera, M.D., wrote the book “Silent Clots – Life’s Biggest Killers”.  He would like to see live blood microscopy in every emergency room to evaluate all stroke and cardiovascular patients as well as others with acute medical conditions to determine the presence of clotting. Clotting can clearly be seen in live blood under the microscope through platelet and red blood cell aggregation. It is a clear sign that zeta potential has fallen and life is threatened.

Studies that Dr. Privitera has conducted are telling. Out of 45 patients studied with circulatory complaints, all had recognizable clots bigger than the size of two red blood cells.  31 out of the 45 also tested with abnormal cholesterol HDL levels. In a study of 28 patients with angina, 27 of those, or 96%, showed significant platelet clotting.

In eighty percent of the heart attacks, the individual does not experience prior chest pain. If live blood microscopy were performed as part of a routine check-up, it seems likely this potential for heart attack would be picked up early. Dr. Privitera would like to know why this method is not widely used and the fact that it isn’t he finds utterly amazing.

Disease Reprieve

Dr. T.C. McDaniel, D.O., was 56 years old many years ago and he was having definite cardiovascular problems. His heart was constantly skipping beats. He went to the best heart experts in the field, and they could not help him. He searched for answers and then stumbled upon the concept of zeta potential. It was a revelation. Blood, which is a suspension, begins to sludge as zeta potential falls, and zeta potential is directly related to the mix of anions and cations and non-ions in that suspension. Armed with this information, he mixed up and took his own “anionic surfactant”, drank more pure water, eliminated the bad cations from his diet, and his PVCs disappeared.

You’ll recall when we talked about molecular reality that the anionic substances with higher valence like 1:2 and 1:3 etc. have a greater dispersing effect. So if one were to take a proper amount of something like potassium citrate which is a 1:3 electrolyte and mix it in pure distilled or reverse osmosis water and drink it up, that would act like a dispersing agent for the blood stream. And so it is.

Dr. McDaniel wrote a book “Disease Reprieve – Living Into the Golden Years” that illustrates the knowledge he uncovered and how he has put it into practice. Today as I write this at the end of 2001, Dr. McDaniel is 87 years old and is still active with a thriving cardiovascular-renal practice. He shows people how to eliminate cardiovascular problems in their life. How to eliminate kidney stones in about 5 hours without any surgical intervention whatsoever, and how to never have them return. This is knowledge which is not taught in medical school and is unlikely to be taught there anytime soon. If your doctor has this knowledge it is likely he learned it through extra-curricular training like the type Biomedx offers or from other more “natural” health oriented outlets. Let me give you some more insight on this.


At the turn of the 20th century, heart attacks were not listed in medical books  –  they were very rare.

Today, 1/2 the population dies from “cardiovascular disease”!

What happened in 100 years???


Once again I am going to be very simple in this presentation, but the knowledge and its application is very powerful. First let me make a reference to history. At the turn of the twentieth century, heart attacks did not exist – at least not in the medical books. Doctors at that time never heard the word coronary thrombosis. The first reported heart attack occurred in 1896 and the condition did not even have a name. Several years later the New England Journal of Medicine did a write up about this new and curious but very rare condition and they called it myocardial infarct.

Today half the population of America dies from “cardiovascular disease”. What happened during a 100 year time span that so changed the picture? Here it is.…

• Processing of foods which reverses natures ratios of potassium to sodium.

• Unnatural farming practices using cationic herbicides and pesticides.

• Increased use of pharmaceutical drugs, over 90% of which are strongly cationic.

• Increased use of sugar which inhibits ionic mobility.

• Chlorination and flouridation of drinking water.

• Not drinking enough pure clean water

• The use of strongly cationic aluminum cans for food and drinks.

• The use of cationic chemical additives and preservatives in food.

• Exposure to thousands of cationic chemicals in the environment.

• Increased consumption of cooked animal protein.

• The consumption of homogenized milk.

• The consumption of polyunsaturated and hydrogenated oils.

Each of these things means the mix of anionic and cationic forces in our bodies is askew, in effect lowering blood zeta potential and clogging things up. Add them all up and you have cardiovascular stress, unheard of 100 years ago, but “normal” today.

In a perfect world with the right concentration of electrolytes which is in perfect balance for the blood, the blood will have a specific conductance (SC) reading of 12,000 micromhos. Specific conductance for blood or urine is a measure of the conductivity level (how well the fluid conducts electricity) and is measured with conductivity meters. The reciprocal of conductivity which is resistivity is also often used. The kidneys job is to make sure blood stays at the 12,000 micromho level.  If the right proportion of dietary electrolytes were being consumed along with adequate water intake, the urine SC would reflect this 12,000 level. This would tell you the kidneys are cruising at a 1 to 1 concentration factor and they are not doing one bit more work than they need to do. Now if an individual starts to lessen water intake, drinks water too high in mineral concentration, consumes too many of the items listed above, then the kidney is going to have to increase concentration levels and the urine will reflect this in a higher SC. A SC reading of 24,000 micromhos reflects a doubling of effort by the kidneys. A 36,000 SC is a triple work load. As you can see, this leads to kidney stress. We have seen people coming into clinics and they pin the needle on the SC meter. Levels of 40,000 micromhos and beyond. These individuals are heart attacks waiting to happen. And guess what, it is not unusual.

The key to cardiovascular health and reversing heart disease is to understand that everything that passes your lips is a potential stress on your system. The more it comes from the above list, the more stress it is. That stress in electrical terms is one of excess cations and the potential for lowering zeta potential. When that starts to happen, blood elements start to stick together, clots start to form, and trouble begins. This trouble would be reflected in the picture of blood under the microscope and a simple reading of urine SC would correlate the picture and quantify the trouble. Increasing urine SC relates to decreasing zeta potential in the blood. Clinically we might use a few other tests but the solution is to increase water intake and the levels of anionic substances in the body.


Dr. McDaniel discovered long ago that if an individual could keep their urine SC to the 12,000 micromho level, watch their dietary intake of foods (which SC could also be tracked), and possibly supplement with an appropriate anionic electrolyte mix, then heart disease, renal problems and kidney stones would be non-existent. Imagine that – no more heart attacks, infarctions, arrhythmias, kidney stones, lithotripsy, or deep venous thrombosis – cardiovascular and renal problems solved. Are you likely to hear about this soon in the mainstream media or medical press? Some would say that as long as “experts” with political and monetary interests are in control, you shouldn’t hold your breath waiting.


The Protein Connection

In discussing heart disease it would not be proper to not let you in on some vital information beyond what we are saying here. And that is this; most people consume far too much cooked animal protein. Since the 1940’s, Dr. Lothar Wendt of Germany has been telling professionals through many published reports that the problems inherent in poor health have a huge basis in the over consumption of cooked animal protein.



This protein, of a cationic nature, if it is not dispersed through sufficient enzyme digestive activity, can end up getting stored deep into the body (enzymes are anionic dispersing agents and discussed in depth later). Over-storage of this animal protein leads to problems:

• The protein stored in the blood causes a reduced micro-circulation and contributes to thrombosis.

• The protein stored on the basal membranes of capillaries and on the walls of arteries causes arteriosclerosis.

• The protein stored inside the heart muscle causes cardiomuscular disease and heart attacks.

• The protein stored on the filters of the kidneys causes kidney disease.

• The protein stored in the liver blocks the only exit of the LDL cholesterol from the blood stream. Cholesterol that can’t leave the bloodstream through the liver contributes to arteriosclerosis.

• The protein stored on the membranes of body cells causes diabetes.

• The protein stored in the breasts of women contributes to the development of breast cancer.

• The protein stored in the prostate contributes to prostate cancer.

Dr. Dean Ornish, on one page of his book “Program for Reversing Heart Disease”, stated that in animal studies, even a low-fat diet that is high in protein can promote the formation of coronary artery blockages. What does that tell you? Low fat diets are absolutely meaningless for cardiovascular protection, but protein consumption is critical.

Going further, we should state that clots themselves, though indicative of a falling zeta potential and probable excess protein concentration, do not themselves cause heart attacks. Back in 1967 Dr. Georgio Baroldi proved that heart attacks occur in areas of the heart muscle different from the area of the clot in the coronary artery. The body builds natural bypasses around clots. What Dr. Wendt showed was that the excess of consumed animal protein stored in the interstitial of the heart muscle is the actual cause of the heart attack. This excess protein storage results in a locally elevated acid level which kills the cells of the heart muscle from the inside. This dying of cells is what is called a heart attack.

What we know of zeta potential is that when the forces of cations are stronger than anions, things stick together. If the heart is a target it’s a problem.

Much More to Say

There is so much more to say about these topics we find it hard to find a natural stopping point. There have been grievous errors committed upon the health of the population through many means.

Now just because we discuss animal protein here does not mean it should not be consumed. The body when balanced has a tremendous capacity to handle a lot  –  including cooked animal protein. (Again, according to Reams, the exception would be children under age 12 as they do not have the digestive capacity for heavy protein until about that age. )

One of the biggest problems we have with meat these days is the abundance of vegetable oils fed to farm animals to fatten them up. It was learned long ago that if you want to make a pig fat, feed it corn oil. Want to make the pig lean, feed it coconut oil. Because of bad science propagated up to meet specific agendas, polyunsaturated vegetable oil has been king of the grocery store shelves. It is wreaking havoc with people’s health.

Note: mothers milk is 55% saturated fat. Does that tell you something? The body needs fat, yes even saturated fat. Butter is a great saturated fat. Some people thrive on coconut oil. People that have started to supplement their diets with coconut oil and eliminating canola, corn and other vegetable oils have found themselves slimming down. They are likely also making their circulatory systems healthier. However, coconut oil has been removed from most grocery store shelves. If you want an interesting research project, do a search for the research of Ray Peat, PhD and coconut oil. You could also search out the Weston Price research.

Learn to Test Yourself

If you want good health you should know what balanced health is, and then you should know how to test yourself so you’ll know when you are in the ballpark of where health exists. It is one goal of Biomedx to see simple testing items like pH and conductivity meters a part of every home. They should be in the medicine cabinet or close by and they should be used regularly. If 50% of the American population dies from cardiovascular disease, and a huge population on the other side die of cancer, then these are two simple test instruments that make sense for every family.  Tracking SC readings tells you when you are in the heart stress zone, and tracking pH readings to an extent tell you when you are in the cancer stress zone. The idea is really simple – stay out of the bad zones.

You Don’t Have a Drug Deficiency

I often tell people; you don’t get headaches because of an aspirin deficiency, you don’t get cancer because there has been a lack of chemotherapy in your diet, and you don’t get osteoporosis because you missed out on getting enough Fosomax as a child – no, you get these things because of nutritional and/or constitutional deficiencies or errors that often take time to develop and show up.  Prior to these things making an appearance, it might make a lot of sense to take stock of where you stand on a regular basis and take corrective action before the deficiencies manifest as disease.  So we test ourselves and stay out of the bad zones. How do we stay out of the bad zones? Through proper food intake, dietary supplementation when necessary, drinking more water, and a few other key items.

Zeta potential is a measurable charge that reflects a basic law of nature. It is the force that maintains the discreteness of particles and the billions of cells in organisms that make up plant and animal life. Getting a familiarity and understanding of it is helpful in understanding dynamic health.

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