Biological Terrain 3

A Classical BTA Review

The following information is a technical review of one of the core parameters measured in classical biological terrain testing as espoused by Prof. Vincent. It will give you insights to the scientific background of this work. Though this is just one nugget of information to get across some points, know that the totality of Flow Systems Auditing encompasses far more of biophysical principles then what is written here and is designed for dynamic client education and powerful on-point health advocacy.  

How Professor Vincent’s Work Measures Terrain

Classical biological terrain analysis attempts to gain insights into various factors of the body’s internal milieu or biological terrain. It is a way of offering an objective reflection of a patient’s overall health. By testing saliva, urine and blood, according to the methods of Vincent, one can gain a great deal of information about what is going on in an individual’s body on a cellular level. The saliva represents digestive function, the blood represents the amount of toxicity the patient is carrying, and the urine represents elimination capability. More specifically, one can discover if the patient’s system is too acidic or too alkaline, whether they have optimum amounts of minerals, and their oxidative stress levels. One can learn whether they are digesting and absorbing minerals and vitamins adequately and even discover the possible presence of damaging industrial or environmental toxins. It is important, however, to know that this form of review does not diagnose specific diseases, but is an objective biofeedback mechanism that offers valuable information concerning the biochemical state of the body.

Optimum Values

In order to accurately assess results, it is important to have a set of guidelines or optimum values to measure against. Below is a table with the optimum pH, rH2, ORP, and resistivity (r) values for blood, saliva, and urine that were established by Professor Claude Vincent. However, knowing how far away test results are from these optimum values is only the first step. You must also understand what these measurements mean in order to make some determination of how these deviations could be affecting internal homeostasis.


pH (acid/alkaline balance)

pH (potential of hydrogen) is the measurement of how acid or how alkaline a solution or bodily fluid is. It is dependent on the number of hydrogen ions present. Acidic measurements lie between 0 and 6.99, while alkaline measurements are between 7.01 and 14.00. The middle point, 7.00 is considered neither acidic nor alkaline. Pure water is an example of a neutral substance.

Blood pH is the single most important reading, because it is affected by biocellular activity more directly than any other reading. The pH of venous blood is a reflection of three factors:

  1. Respiratory rate; chronic stress combined with improper breathing results in a chronic respiratory alkalosis.
  1. How much oxygen that is being taken up by the tissues. When oxygen is poorly taken up by the tissues, a higher percentage of it remains in the venous blood. Since oxygen is an alkalinizing substance, this results in an increase in the venous pH.
  1. How effectively the tissues are using the oxygen to generate energy. The most effective way for cells to produce energy from oxygen is through oxidative phosphorilation in the mitochondria. This process involves the production of carbon dioxide. The only other way to produce energy though oxygen is through the anaerobic metabolism of glucose, which does not produce carbon dioxide. Therefore, effective energy production results in an increase in carbon dioxide production, whereas inefficient production results in a decrease. Venous pH is determined almost exclusively on the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood due to the following equation:

H2O + CO2  >  HCO3 + H+

It can be observed that the higher the CO2 concentration, the higher the hydrogen ion concentration, resulting in a lowered pH. Conversely, the lower the CO2 concentration, the lower the hydrogen concentration, and hence the higher the pH.

Ideal blood pH is about 7.35, or very slightly alkaline. It is controlled by a strict and sensitive system in the body to keep it near that level by adjusting the amount of carbon dioxide (acidic) and bicarbonate (alkaline) in the blood. If the blood becomes too acidic, more acid is excreted in the urine, and more carbon dioxide is expelled from the lungs. The opposite is set into motion if the blood becomes too alkaline. A tendency towards acidity, rather than alkalinity, will usually be seen in practice. This is due to the fact that western diets are full of protein rich foods and refined carbohydrates, which create acidity in the body. On the other hand, most fruits and vegetables create alkalinity.

Urine pH reflects the amount of acid residual that is being eliminated from the body. A normal urine pH is around 6.4-6.8, but when significant interstitial acid accumulation has occurred, the pH can fall to as low as 4.5. The degree of interstitial acid accumulation can be estimated by comparing the pH of the first morning urine to the pH of a specimen taken at least 30 minutes later. The second specimen should ideally show a significantly higher pH than the first specimen. If it is nearly the same as the first specimen, the degree of acidosis is quite marked.

Of all the measurements taken, the saliva values are the most difficult to interpret. It is important to note that they are influenced greatly by the measurements of the blood. Thus when interpreting the saliva values, one must do so by comparing the measurements to those of the blood. For the most part, saliva pH can be attributed mostly to digestive impairment.

Mitochondrial function, hormone receptor sites, and many other functions of the body are extremely dependent on pH balance. Being able to test the pH is essential to helping your patients achieve optimum health.

Oxidative Stress (rH2)

The rH2-value is obtained mathematically using pH, ORP, temperature, and is derived through the Nernst equation. It indicates the amount of electron potential in the fluid that is being tested. A high number of available electrons in human cells indicate an optimum situation, signifying a healthy and productive Krebs cycle. In other words, the oxidative stress values show the concentration of electrons and their movement in the body. Nutritional deficiencies, stress, over stimulation of the immune system, lack of exercise, exposure to radiation, and toxicity can all lead to higher than optimum levels. The individual can then be more prone to disease and premature aging. rH2 values can range from 1-42, with 28 being the mid-point. A value of rH2 under 28 is reduced, with a higher number of electron donors than acceptors. A value higher than 28 infers that the fluid is oxidized, with a lower number of electron donors than acceptors

Ideal blood rH2 values should be between 23 and 24. Readings less than 23 are caused by artifact. Readings greater than 24 reflects increasing oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is caused by mitochondrial insufficiency, but antioxidant deficiency is often a contributing factor. Saliva rH2 values seem to be more often associated with liver function.

In order to lessen oxidative stress, the physician will make several recommendations to the patient. It is essential to stimulate and drain the lymphatic system, through the use of homeopathic and herbal drainage remedies, and the use of massage, deep breathing, and exercise. Invading toxins should be addressed, such as insecticides, mercury (possible from dental fillings), and heavy metals. The diet should be addressed, with special limitation of alcohol, cigarettes, sugar, and non-organic foods. Liver function should be assisted with the use of herbal and homeopathic remedies, plus reduced glutathione. Stress must be dealt with, as it has such a negative effect on immune function, and enzymatic action within the body. An individual program of nutrients, especially anti-oxidants, vitamins and minerals should be followed.


The r-value refers to resistivity, or the relative concentration of conductive ions in the biological fluid. Therefore, testing the r-value can indicate the levels of minerals in the body, especially sodium, chloride, calcium, magnesium, and potassium. When the r-value it increased, there is low mineral concentration; when r-value is decreased, mineral concentration is increased. Therefore, the relationship between electrical resistivity and electrical conductivity is inversely proportional. When minerals are deficient, enzymatic reactions are poor, and if the mineral content is too high, the fluids of the body can become stagnant and congested.

It is fairly common to see a raised r-value, indicating a lack of minerals, due to many factors. Many experts agree that minerals are becoming depleted in our soils, due to intensive farming practices. Also, the amount of sodas consumed in the western diet contributes to mineral loss from the body, from the phosphorus and sugar levels in soft drinks. Dairy products and refined carbohydrates also take a toll on the levels of minerals in the body, and these are usually high in the western diet.

There are several factors that cause changes in resistivity within the patient’s body. These are excess or loss of minerals, poor kidney function, electrolyte imbalance, or sluggish and congested lymphatic system. The patient must have an individualized program that detoxifies the lymphatic system through the use of drainage herbals and homeopathics, balances the pH, detoxifies the liver, and aids kidney function. Plenty of pure water, massage, and diet will also be important to changing the r-values for the patient.


The ultimate goal of preventive medicine is to optimize homeostasis. The methods of Professor Vincent serves to point a way to monitor this progress. Armed with appropriate information, targeted recommendations can be ascertained which address the areas of concern that have shown up in the numbers. As the body is constantly trying to attain homeostasis on its own but sometimes loses its way, a gentle push in the right direction can often do wonders. If correct balance can be reached, the body’s wise internal doctor can begin the process of healing.

As seen in this review Professor Vincent’s methods are great, however in practice there’s always been missing pieces to the modality which has had many practitioners wondering how to fill in the gaps.

Biomedx Flow System Auditing closes the gaps by incorporating the ideas you have read here along with a toolset of synergistic applications that catapults a clinicians abilities to see deeper into the terrain then ever before.

Flow Systems Auditing

It’s What You Want & Where You Want to Be!

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